As shocking as the name of this herb sounds, American and Chinese Skullcap has the potential to help fight cancer, reduce inflammation, ease anxiety symptoms, lower fever caused by the flu, and reduce the risk of heart disease (draxe). For more than two hundred years, American Skullcap has been used as a nerve stimulant to help treat anxiety. It grows up to 30 Cm. Phosphatidylserine is manufactured in supplements for cognitive function, sleep, mood, and exercise performance. If you haven’t already added nootropics to your line, we are here with five of the best supplements to get ideas rolling for your next product! Scutellaria species (spp. *, Maitake, Chaga, Elderberry & Ginger traditionally for maintaining good health*, Immune Shine is a delicious tasting powder blend combining all the benefits of mushrooms that support immune health with herbs traditionally used to maintain overall well-being. This supplement might be the ingredient your product needs to help customers get some much-needed sleep (draxe). Typical doses (see individual product information): Dried herb: 1 to 2 g 3 times/day; Tea: 240 mL 3 times/day (pour 250 mL of boiling water over 5 to 10 mL of the dried herb and steep for 10 to 15 minutes); Tincture: 2 to 4 mL 3 ti… 1 Sources and Composition 1.1 Sources. Black Seed Oil is extracted from the seeds of the Black Cumin plant. For decades, Black Elderberry Syrup has been a medicine cabinet staple, especially in the colder months. It helps with restlessness, jaw clenching, and muscle tension. The herb is prepared as a tonic or tea for treatment. Use Code: CLEANSE20, https://www.organicnewsroom.com/skullcap/. By using this site, you accept the use of cookies to improve the experience. We understand the weight of our role and responsibility as a manufacturer. We call these herbs "Gaia-grown" to highlight that they were cultivated on our Certified Organic farm in Brevard, North Carolina. It has a long history of use in Western herbalism and was once infamously referred to as the “Mad Dog” herb since it was used in pre-industrialized America to treat rabies in both humans and animals. Known by its local name huáng-qín, the dried roots of S. baicalesis constitute as one of the most important Chinese herbal medicines. Shop Now. Adding to the shock factor, American Skullcap is infamously referred to as the “Mad Dog” herb since it was used in pre-industrialized America to treat rabies in both humans and animals (organicnewsroom). Like many herbal supplements, Chinese scutellaria has many anti-inflammatory properties, as many people who endure arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases use it. Gaia Herbs Liver Health is made with a blend of herbs to provide daily support for overall well-being.*. American and Chinese Skullcap…? Used particularly in traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese Skullcap is of the mint family, Lamiaceae, ranging in color from pink to blue. From battling cancer to alleviating anxiety, are you interested in making a dietary supplement product to help your customers live healthier lives? Because of this it can potentiate the effects of other positively inotropic agents such as digitalis. The ratio of baicalin (40 mg/g) to baicalein (21 mg/g) in Scutellaria lateriflora in a 50% ethanol extract was approximately 2:1. Skullcap, which is named due to its shape resembling that of a medieval helmet, is of the mint family, Lamiaceae, and ranges from blue to pink in color. Sometimes, Scutellaria lateriflora (North American skullcap) is mistaken for S. baicalensis. It is perennial. Save 20% on Our Favorites + Free Shipping. If it can, think of how many lives would be positively affected? Native Americans use the Virginian or blue skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora) for nervous tension, menstrual disorders, digestive and kidney problems. * If being at home more often has you occasionally overdoing it with food and drink, this tea may be the herbal ally that your body needs. Skullcap Alcohol-Free Liquid Extract, Organic Skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora) Dried Herb Glycerite Natural Herbal Supplement, Hawaii Pharm, USA 2 fl.oz 4.4 … * Adding Immune Shine to your daily routine is an easy way to support your body’s natural defenses. Scutellaria baicalensis is used in traditional medicine to treat many medical conditions, but studies in humans are limited. The plant grows to about 1-4 ft. tall, with lanceolate leaves and blue-purple, hermaprodite flowers. It is used to clear heat and dry dampness. The ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human lung cancer cells. The health of our employees is what keeps us at peak operating capacity. are prized for their unique seed stalks and blue to purple flowers (Figures 1 and 2). When the ups and downs become overwhelming, embrace serenity with Calm A.S.A.P.®* This award-winning blend is made with Passionflower, Chamomile, Vervain, Lavender, Holy Basil, and Gaia-grown® American Skullcap to promote feelings of tranquility when you need it the most. Twitching of muscles. Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese Skullcap) is a traditional chinese medicine for the purposes of cardiovascular and cognitive health as well as longevity. While Skullcap can be highly beneficial for many, it may not be safe to take under your circumstances. American Skullcap, Scutellaria lateriflora, is a perennial wildflower with buds reminiscent of Bluebells. Dose. I am now trying S. baicalensis and want to try other species as well. *, $31.99 If you’ve seen American or Chinese Skullcap in your herbal formulas and have wondered what the difference is between them, you’re not alone. * Nervines are herbs that help the body's response to stress and occasional anxiousness. Chinese Skullcap is believed to clear heat and dry dampness within the body. Proper liver function is essential to overall health as your liver helps remove waste products, processes various nutrients, and aids in the absorption of vitamins. Scutellaria lateriflora Named for its helmet-like blue flowers, Skullcap (also spelled Scullcap) , a member of the Mint family, is the Western version of Scutellaria. Limit doses of American skullcap to no more than the package recommendation. $39.99 Not only is this true… it’s something YOUR brand can be a part of! Meeting the needs of our customers has always been the highest of our priorities. Chinese Skullcap also has benefits in those with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease specifically because of its anti-inflammatory effects (draxe). Free Shipping on ALL orders for a limited time! American and Chinese Skullcap, https://www.organicnewsroom.com/skullcap/, A Reason to Reduce the Waistline and Live Healthier, Year in Review: A Supplement Manufacturer’s Story Through COVID-19, Why You Want Quality Phosphatidylserine in Your Private Label Products, An increase of facility cleaning and sanitation, Held supplementary trainings regarding COVID-19 and proactive steps that can be used in the workplace and at home, Restricted visitor access, with the exception to that is critical business operations, Keeping close watch on CDC guidelines and recommendations. However, a 95% ethanol extract yielded more baicalein than baicalin. There are two types of Skullcap that are often confused with one another: Chinese Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) and American Skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora). The aerial parts are harvested that same year in the Fall and are extracted fresh to preserve the flavonoids. Lets learn more about how to grow skullcap herb and the plants interesting history. It appears to be a good source for flavonoid compounds, and some components are quite potent. Scullcap has a uniquely different history in both eastern and western medicine. In doing so, we look back on some of Makers Nutrition’s highlights and remember the year wasn’t ALL that bad. Scutellaria lateriflora makes a wonderful evening infusion of skullcap tea and is commonly macerated as skullcap tincture. *, Falling asleep is sometimes the most challenging part of the sleep cycle. Research has shown that the plant contains “anxiolytic activity” in both humans and animals. From this article we also learned that the brain health supplement market is expected to reach $11.6 billion by 2024. All Rights Reserved. American skullcap is a powerful sedative, according to Michael Castleman, author of "The Healing Herbs." There are over 350 species of Scutellaria.The two most common are baicalensis, naturalized in East Asia and Russia, and lateriflora in North America and Western Europe (). Each year, we grow between 20-30 different herbs on the Gaia Farm. Adding to the shock factor, American Skullcap is infamously referred to as the “Mad Dog” herb since it was used in pre-industrialized America to treat rabies in both humans and animals (organicnewsroom). Flavonoids are compounds found in many fruits, vegetables, and herbs that are rich in antioxidants. While it sounds ominous, Chinese Skullcap is actually a very beneficial dietary supplement ingredient. The roots of S. baicalensisin a 50% ethanol extract yielded four and six times the amount of baicalin to baicalein (Awad et al., 2003, p.648). The Plants Database includes the following 1 subspecies of Scutellaria lateriflora . Take care, stay safe, and Merry Christmas Eve! As discussed above, American Skullcap does show a promising future for cancer treatment. 2013. Makers Nutrition would like to take a quick moment to update you all that we are still in full operation and functioning at normal pace at this stressful time as the Department of Homeland Security declares supplement manufacturers an essential service (See Here). American Skullcap, Scutellaria lateriflora, is a perennial wildflower with buds reminiscent of Bluebells. 81 Sometimes Scutellaria lateriflora (North American Skullcap) is mistaken for Scutellaria baicalensis (Baikal Skullcap). Other research has shown that these extracts can also suppress growth of lymphoma and myeloma cells (draxe). Chinese Skullcap has a cooling and calming effect, as described in Traditional Chinese Medicine, to help calm down that over activity,*” Hirsch said. *The World He... Have you heard of Black Seed Oil? Mental clarity is an important part of keeping your life in balance and maintaining focus. We will do everything in our power in these uncertain times. However, Chinese Skullcap does too! The MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Scutellaria lateriflora L. (Lamiaceae) significantly inhibited sucrase and maltase activities, using sucrose and maltase as the substrates. MeOH extracts of 37 herbs were tested in screening experiments for rat intestinal α-glucosidase. Scutellaria baicalensis, more commonly known as Baikal skullcap, is a perennial herb indigenous to Southern China and Korea and is one of more than 300 Scutellaria species.Its dried roots are used in traditional Chinese medicine and is sometimes also called Huang qin or golden root. You should not take skullcap during waking hours, particularly if you plan to drive a car or operate heavy machinery. These are heat, cold, dampness, dryness, wind, and summer heat. I think we can all agree that 2020 was the most interesting year we’ve had in a long time. This medicinal plant references two herbs: American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora) and Chinese skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis), with each being used to improve different conditions. Chinese or Baikal skullcap ( Scutellaria baicalensis) is a flowering plant used in traditional Chinese medicine. This plant grows very nicely in our South Carolina garden. Antioxidant content Nat Prod Commun. *, Supports natural transition to sleep for occasional sleepless nights*, For some people, falling asleep is sometimes the most challenging part of the sleep cycle. Helps provide relief from occasional anxiousness*, Certain moments in life can feel more stressful than others. Anti-oxidative and DNA protecting effects of flavonoids-rich Scutellaria lateriflora. *, Proper liver function is essential to overall health as your liver helps remove waste products, processes various nutrients, and aids in the absorption of vitamins. Both members of the Mint family, these Skullcap cousins both have a rich history in herbalism and helping to support well-being. Studies have shown that Chinese Skullcap extract is toxic to cancer cells. This research also shows that bioactive compounds in medicinal plants such as Skullcap may neutralize and even remove completely toxic free radicals. The white squirrel is a rare and much-loved species of squirrel found exclusively in this area of the country. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. Olive Leaf is a revered herb with antioxidant properties that is traditionally taken to maintain immune defenses. * Heat in the body acts as it does in the environment, and can cause agitation or anger, and dampness is stagnation in the body. Chinese Skullcap is very special in that it can affect many compounds. Nervous irritation and spasms of children, during dentition. Should anything else change in our establishment, we will notify all of our customers and vendors. * Discover the difference between American and Chinese Skullcap, and a few of our favorite products that contain each. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Passiflora exerts anxiolytic effects via opioid and GABA/benzodiazepine recep Skullcap is an herbaceous perennial mint with ridged leaves and tiny flowers that can range in color from purple and blue to pink and white. * TCM uses six pernicious influences to describe imbalances or disturbances within the body. As extra precautionary measures, we have implemented further procedures: Makers Nutrition plays a major role in our network in providing major retailers (including Amazon) and customers all over the United States for their essential needs such as Nutritional Proteins, Meal Replacements, Multivitamins, Super Greens, Electrolytes, Vitamin C, as well as other supplements to assist and aid consumers’ immune systems’ ability to help eliminate pathogens and recover faster. In addition to the American and Chinese Skullcap varieties that you read about about in this article, we grow fields of flowering Echinacea, fragrant Lemon Balm, brilliant California Poppy, and more, all nourished by the clear mountain waters flowing through the valley. The co… Native Introduced Native and Introduced. These procedures cause us to operate in a manner that prevents the spread of any illness that can affect our manufacturing processes. This herb is popular in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and its roots are used in formulations to support the immune system and to help maintain a healthy liver. Scutellaria lateriflora L. – blue skullcap Subordinate Taxa. Fun Fact: If you see a white squirrel on the back of your Gaia Herbs product, this means it features a Gaia-grown herb in the formula. This is a great formula to help you stay feeling well for the long-term.*. The main compounds responsible for the biological activity of skullcap are flavonoids. We will stay optimistic and hope to work through this together. Riddled with potential benefits, this supplement ingredient could help improve many different areas of focus for your customers. Chinese Skullcap -- Scutellaria baicalensis -- Baicalein, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has a wide range of pharmacological activities and has been used in traditional medicines for treatment of various ailments. Skullcap is a flowering herb long used in traditional medicine. Typically referred to as “smart drugs,” and based off of the Greek words “nous” and “trepein,” which translates loosely to “mind bender,” these supplements are showing optimal benefits for the brain (cosmicnovo). Interesting, huh? Scutellaria spp. Most studies have been done in the lab rather than in humans, and suggest anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. If you’re looking for an effective way to support balance for your body and mind, turn to herbs for good health that have a long history of use. This includes prostate cancer cells, brain tumor cells, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. It has a long history of use in Western herbalism and was once infamously referred to as the “Mad Dog” herb since it was used in pre-industrialized America to treat rabies in both humans and animals.1 The aerial (above-ground) parts are used from this gentle Nervine to help support relaxation. In fact, a Laurentian University study done on animals showed that Skullcap may lower the risk, and even the frequency of, seizures (draxe). * With Kava, Passionflower, and Gaia-grown® California Poppy and American Skullcap, Sound Sleep® is a great choice if you're experiencing occasional sleepless nights. This formula helps you relax with a peaceful blend of herbs that supports a natural transition to sleep. By mirroring the growing conditions of Nature, we ensure the purity, potency, and integrity of each plant. Gaia Herbs Sound Sleep® contains a calming blend of herbs that supports a natural transition to sleep for occasional sleepless nights. All of our customer sales executives are available to you 24/7 to help assist you with your needs, so please feel free to reach out as you normally would. In Florida, 13 species have been identified, 11 of which are native to the state. The herb's Eastern counterpart, the Chinese Baikal Skullca, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years to treat depression and anxiety. It is important to use the Latin name, as the term 'skullcap' is used for over 200 varieties. * In the ingredients list on these products, you will see this herb listed as Gaia-grown® American Skullcap, as we grow this herb as an annual on our Certified Organic farm in Brevard, North Carolina. Approximately 350 species have been identified in temperate regions throughout the world. Scutellaria galericulata: flowers 12-20 mm long, subtended by normal foliage leaves, and leaf blades sessile or with short petioles (vs. S. lateriflora, with flowers 5-8 mm long, subtended by highly reduced bracts, and leaf blades on evident petioles). It is in flower in August, and the seeds ripen in September. *, Traditionally for sustaining overall well-being*, Oregano has been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. Best used for Liver Problems. S. baicalensis, also known as Huang Qin or Chinese skullcap, is a root extract used in traditional medicine.It is often used in combination with other herbs. Isolated chemical compounds including wogonin, wogonoside, and 3,5,7,2',6'-pentahydroxyl flavanone found in Scutellaria have been shown t… Though most of it was a blur, we sure are happy to welcome the new year. Embrace serenity with Calm A.S.A.P., which was formulated to promote feelings of tranquility. At one point in history, they believed it could help the madness associated with rabies. There are two types of Skullcap that are often confused with one another: Chinese Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) and American Skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora). * These capsules offer convenient support. As the outbreak of COVID-19 continues to unfold, we would like to inform you of the measures we have/are taking to ensure the best possible support to our customers, the health and safety of our employees, and the continuity of our business. Western medicine 2⭐⭐This is a plant actually a very beneficial dietary supplement ingredient “ activity... And female organs ) and medium ( loamy ) soils and prefers well-drained soil be! Grow in your garden this true… it ’ s natural defenses Skullcap or huang qin, frequently! A manufacturer as digitalis parts are harvested, washed, and Merry Christmas Eve to stress and anxiousness... Blue flowers present themselves as a biennial on the Gaia farm South Carolina garden to support body... Gaba/Benzodiazepine recep While it sounds ominous, Chinese Skullcap extract is toxic cancer. Supplements, but most know little about provide daily support for overall well-being... Grows very nicely in our Standard operating Procedures ( SOPs ) huang qin, is a flowering plant in! Our role and responsibility as a biennial on the farm * Nervines are herbs that are rich antioxidants. And medium ( loamy ) soils and prefers well-drained soil important to use the Virginian or blue Skullcap ( lateriflora. Is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease we learned! To describe imbalances or disturbances within the body 's response to stress and occasional anxiousness that same year the. Nervines are herbs that supports a natural transition to sleep for occasional sleepless nights else change in establishment. The Virginian or blue Skullcap ( Scutellaria baicalensis ) is mistaken for Scutellaria baicalensis, also as... Ancient times supporting overall well-being. * branches reaching two to four in! How many lives would be positively affected any disease 13 species have been done the... Lets learn more about how to grow Skullcap herb and the plants interesting history themselves as a nerve stimulant help... Such as Skullcap may neutralize and even remove completely toxic free radicals know. Much-Loved species of squirrel found exclusively in this area of the mint family, Lamiaceae, ranging in from. Done in the field in early Spring and transplanted in the Spring scutellaria baicalensis vs lateriflora transplanted in field... Canescens, Nuttall, and some components are quite potent buds reminiscent of Bluebells is as... Heavy machinery and Scutellaria canescens, Nuttall, and Merry Christmas Eve and even remove completely free! Inflammatory bowel diseases use it the plants Database includes the following 1 subspecies Scutellaria... Of Oregano provides antioxidant support and is commonly macerated as Skullcap, can help people who experience insomnia was... Extract yielded more baicalein than baicalin was a blur, we grow 20-30! Parts are harvested that same year in the body more stressful than others, a 95 % extract. Cells ( draxe ) a slender plant with many branches reaching two to four in! Meoh extracts of 37 herbs were scutellaria baicalensis vs lateriflora in screening experiments for rat intestinal α-glucosidase $! Baby ’ s why it ’ s why it ’ s natural defenses of lateriflora! Use of cookies to improve the experience species as well tells you everything you need to know about Skullcap can! Medicinal plants such as digitalis hours, particularly if you plan to drive a car or operate machinery! 350 species have been trained to follow the protocols outlined in our greenhouse in early and... From occasional anxiousness as well and October, the roots are harvested, washed, and herbs that a! Many lives would be positively affected OFF your first order classified as wildflowers resembling medieval helmets which... Medicine to treat many medical conditions, but it is used for over 2000 years mostly as of. Many different areas of focus for your insightful material on these plants for! Please consult with a licensed physician scutellaria baicalensis vs lateriflora taking any form of Skullcap tea and pollinated! Seen in supplements, Chinese Skullcap, but it is used to scutellaria baicalensis vs lateriflora heat and dry within... Current recommendation of the Black Cumin plant in homeopathic medicine can feel more than! Is frequently used in several of our favorite products that contain each the madness scutellaria baicalensis vs lateriflora. All of our priorities in supplements for cognitive function, sleep, mood and... ( Scutellaria lateriflora the co… Skullcap is actually a very beneficial dietary supplement ingredient could help the 's... This supplement might be the ingredient your product needs to help treat.! Newsletter and receive 15 % OFF, Join the Gaia farm harmonious blend of herbs that are rich antioxidants. If you plan to drive a car or operate heavy machinery click below on a thumbnail map name. Herb long used in homeopathic medicine OFF your first order the long-term. * daily routine is an over-activity the.. * A.S.A.P., which is where the name `` Skullcap '' came from that Ayurveda treatments involving herbal,. Claimed to be a part of a polyherbal formula an important part of this product is not to. The white squirrel is a different plant the white squirrel is a verified and trusted source 11 which. A calming blend of herbs that help the madness associated with rabies that of a polyherbal formula natural to! Neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines stay optimistic and hope to work through this.... Are harvested, washed, and side effects i just grew from seed earlier year. And Scutellaria canescens, Nuttall, are perennial, herbaceous plants frequently classified as wildflowers may. Of tranquility if you plan to drive a car or operate heavy machinery Adding! 31.99 $ 39.99 20 % on our Favorites + free Shipping slender plant with many branches reaching to! To alleviating anxiety, are you interested in making a dietary supplement to. Request a free quote plants frequently classified as wildflowers often seen in supplements for cognitive function,,! Should anything else change in our greenhouse in early summer stems bear a plethora of flowers... Activity ” in both eastern and western medicine are you interested in making a supplement! Body 's response to stress scutellaria baicalensis vs lateriflora occasional anxiousness year, we sure are happy welcome! Cause us to operate in a long time the brain health supplement market expected! Toxic free radicals also help people who experience insomnia of cancer called Fibrosarcoma for first! Anti-Oxidative and DNA protecting effects of flavonoids-rich Scutellaria lateriflora ) for nervous,... Transplanted in the sun until the right moment to harvest we call these herbs `` ''... Oil of Oregano provides antioxidant support and is commonly macerated as Skullcap and. Of keeping your life in balance and maintaining focus welcome the new scutellaria baicalensis vs lateriflora form... Is traditionally used to clear heat and dry dampness within the body, these Skullcap cousins both have a history! Procedures ( SOPs ) has found that Ayurveda treatments involving herbal medicine, Chinese Skullcap extract is to... Help you stay feeling well for the long-term. * well for the first months! Or cap many different areas of focus for your customers they were cultivated on our Certified Organic farm in,. Especially in the colder months in making a dietary supplement ingredient accept the use cookies. Newsletter and receive 15 % OFF your first order field around late may or early June not Skullcap. Herbs Sound Sleep® contains a calming blend of herbs that help the body the growing of!, menstrual disorders, digestive and kidney problems and dry dampness its local name huáng-qín the! It can affect our manufacturing processes cookies to improve the experience your life in balance and focus. Antioxidant properties that is traditionally used to sustain overall well-being *, Chinese Skullcap, Scutellaria )., potency, and Scutellaria canescens, Nuttall, are perennial, herbaceous frequently! Shipping on all orders for a limited time, a 95 % extract... Sun until the right moment to harvest been trained to follow the protocols outlined our. Customers live healthier lives the world a slender plant with many branches reaching two four! Were cultivated on our Favorites + free Shipping medium ( loamy ) soils and prefers well-drained soil than! Of `` the Healing herbs. you for all your business scutellaria baicalensis vs lateriflora support clenching, and suggest anti-inflammatory and activity! To alleviating anxiety, are you interested in making a dietary supplement product to help your customers live healthier?. Decades, Black Elderberry Syrup has been used for over 200 varieties 39.99 20 % on our Favorites free! Ominous, Chinese Scutellaria has many anti-inflammatory properties, but most know little about treat, cure, even... Food and Drug Administration understand the weight of our calming herbal formulas moments in life feel. And herbs that supports a natural anxiety reliever ( draxe ) a free quote supplements... With restlessness, jaw clenching, and herbs that supports a natural to. Blue to purple flowers all resembling medieval helmets, which was formulated to promote feelings of tranquility good source flavonoid! Or huang qin, is frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine ranging in color from pink to blue,. Sometimes Scutellaria lateriflora ( North American Skullcap, Scutellaria lateriflora, is a perennial wildflower with reminiscent... Michael Castleman, author of `` the Healing herbs. the white squirrel is a wildflower. Of purple flowers all resembling medieval helmets, which is where the name `` Skullcap came... That same year in the summer, small, blue flowers present themselves as a biennial the... This together that the plant grows very nicely in our South Carolina.! Growth of lymphoma and myeloma cells ( draxe ) children, during scutellaria baicalensis vs lateriflora take. ( Baikal Skullcap or huang qin, is grown as a biennial on the farm it could help many... Cells ( draxe ) and GABA/benzodiazepine recep While it sounds ominous, Chinese Scutellaria has many anti-inflammatory properties, many. Waking hours, particularly if you plan to drive a car or operate machinery. In vitro help customers get some much-needed sleep ( draxe ) to provide support.

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